Safety Advice for Electromagnetic Fields

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Potential Wireless Health Effects


                                                                                               
See also: Science Overview | Urban Legend?

The following sections discuss the scientific and epidemiological studies.


For more on the mechanisms that may explain the biological/health effects, refer to the Science Overview.

Infertility

Wireless technologies may increase the risk of infertility, by impacting human sperm count, motility, and normal morphology.1 Five countries have now shown that cell phone use among men had negative effects upon sperm. Relevant studies were done in Ohio, Wisconsin, as well as Australia, Hungary, Poland, and Turkey.2 Occupational exposure of Danish personnel to radar may also have resulted in lower sperm counts.3 In animals, microwaves also affect rat sperm motility,4 reduce the average number of fruit fly offspring (Drosophila melanogaster),5 result in irreversible infertility in mice 6. Female rats' ovaries are affected as well,7 which is alarming because females, unlike males, have only one set of eggs from birth, and the genetic damage that accumulates before they give birth may affect posterity.

Power line frequencies, in addition to microwave frequencies, have similarly been linked to infertility or miscarriage, suggesting that this is not necessarily a thermal effect, and that power line and microwave frequencies may be working under similar mechanisms. Read more on powerline magnetic fields here.

Genotoxic Effects and Cancer

Genetic changes resulting from microwaves, including DNA strand breaks, double-stranded breaks, and effects on gene expression, is another interesting area of research. There is both scientific evidence for this as well as epidemiological evidence for the increase of cancer as a result of wireless exposure.

Scientific Evidence

One of the first studies to show DNA breaks from microwaves was conducted by Henry Lai and Narendra Singh of the University of Washington.8 Despite the industry’s attempts to attack this study, this finding was later confirmed by the 7-nation European REFLEX project and a study by the University of Vienna. There are now in total at least 11 studies showing DNA breaks.9 In addition to studies on DNA breaks, there are also now studies showing effects upon gene expression.10 Not all studies found significant increases in DNA damage, but it's important to note that not all cell types may be equally sensitive. A paper by Phillips, Singh, and Lai further notes that the comet assay method is very sensitive and that some researchers with little prior experience made specific methodological errors, or developed versions with different detection sensitivities.11

The exact mechanism behind DNA breaks is under speculation. The following have been raised as possibilities:

Note that genotoxic effects were found for both power line (alternating current) 50/60Hz frequencies in addition to radio/microwave frequencies. Because power lines and microwaves may have different power/frequency levels, it suggests that it is not related to the thermal effect.16

When the rate of repair cannot keep up with the rate of DNA breaks, then there is greater likelihood of retaining mutations, which may lead to cancer. If the mutation is too great, cell death may occur, which is a partially protective mechanism, because it prevents the propagation of errors. However, at the same time, it can be dangerous for cells in the brain, heart, and ova which are less likely to be regenerated through mitotic activity, and where cell death can possibly lead to conditions like Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and infertility.

Corresponding Epidemiological Evidence

Given that microwaves cause damage to DNA, we might expect to see cancer increases in epidemiological studies. Indeed, cancer has been potentially linked not only to mobile phones, but also to cordless phones 17, radio towers, and TV towers (Australia, Great Britain, Rome, and San Francisco, and Lookout Mountain, Colorado).18 Some have argued that radio and TV towers have been around for a long time and are safe, and therefore the same should be true about mobile phone masts. Nevertheless, the premise itself appears false, given the many epidemiological studies on radio and TV towers, which indicate a correlation with cancer. Although the Radio and TV transmitters are more powerful, they are also tightly regulated and so are likely to be spaced further apart than cell towers.

Cell towers and mobile phone masts, as well as cordless phones, in contrast, are now quite ubiquitous, and a lot of people are now exposed to high levels. Sometimes these masts are placed right on residential buildings, right outside of people’s apartments. There appear to be multiple cancer clusters in close proximity to mobile phone masts, for example, in Israel, in Naila, Germany, in the UK, in Perez, Spain, in Taman Subang in Kelana Jaya, Malaysia, in Taiwan, and Bayville, NY (see footnotes for more information).19 Eileen O’ Connor, of the EM Radiation Research Trust, is one example of a breast cancer survivor who was in a cancer cluster near a mobile phone mast.20 The high breast cancer rates of Marin County, California, were also suspected by some to be related to wireless radiation.21 In Canada, telecommunications workers had increased rates of melanomas (skin cancer) 22, a cancer which is increasing in several countries.23 Leukemia is another form of cancer that has been noticed with nonthermal microwave radiation, e.g., as a result of the Russian's secretly irradiating the U.S. Embassy in Moscow.

In the large Interphone multinational study on mobile phones and brain cancer, a link between mobile phones and cancer was found for multiple nations. The correlation was found despite poor study design that would actually grossly underestimate the risk of mobile phones. For more information on Interphone's weaknesses, including its definition of "regular user," the exclusion of children and business users, and more, see Cellphones and Brain Tumors: 15 Reasons for Concern: Science, Spin and the Truth Behind Interphone.

In the US Congressional hearing in 2008, one of the debated issues was whether the evidence points to a causal relation between wireless technologies such as mobile phones and cancer. The wireless industry representative claimed that the overall cancer statistics have not been getting worse.

  1. Looking at the overall statistics is not completely appropriate in this case, without considering the individual trends that are a part of this overall statistics. For example, the overall statistics includes statistics for lung cancer, one of the most prevalent cancers, whose incidence has been decreasing due to increased awareness of the dangers of smoking.24 Instead of looking at overall statistics, it may be more instructive to look at a particular type of cancer. For example, brain cancer has been on the rise for young adults, e.g., 20-29 year olds.25 It is also instructive to look at salivary gland tumors among younger users.
  2. There is approximately a 20-year time lag between the rise of smoking and the consequent rise of lung cancer deaths and between the decrease in smoking and the consequent decrease in lung cancer deaths. The population that began using cell phones 20 years ago is much smaller than the population using cell phones today, and these users were generally not as heavy users as today. It is possible that we will see a similar or even shorter time lag between wireless technology use and its long-term consequences. Personal home and office wireless technologies have only been around for a few decades, starting around the 1980s, with the newer and possibly more dangerous technologies like Wi-Fi and digital (as opposed to analog) cordless phone systems getting greater adoption and popularity in the late 1990s. They have not been studied for long enough to establish their safety. Also, we have the difficulty of factoring in “second-hand” radiation, especially since people are not fully aware of their level of exposure, unlike with smoke.
  3. Furthermore, the cancer statistics also suffer from omissions, e.g., the omissions of Veterans Administration cancer statistics from state registries since late 2004.26 In some studies, business users and children have been excluded. In other studies, only short-term studies not exceeding 1 decade were performed.

Sleep Disorders

Research Studies

There is some research confirming that microwaves can impact sleep. Researchers at the University of Zurich, Switzerland found that 15 minutes of exposure affected brain waves during sleep in young male volunteers.27 In one study, the components of sleep thought to be important for daily recovery, have been found to be adversely impacted by wireless technologies as well. A 3-hour exposure prolonged the latency to reach the first cycle of deep sleep, and decreased stage 4 sleep.28 Studies have shown that ELF pulse-modulated microwaves have effects upon sleep. Furthermore, pulse-modulated microwaves may increase regional cerebral blood flow and enhanced EEG power. In contrast, non-pulse-modulated microwaves did not enhance EEG power. 29 Concerning the EEG effects, it has also been found that the EEG alpha band are especially affected.30

Corresponding Anecdotal and Epidemiological Evidence

One of the symptoms associated with microwave sickness is sleep issues, such as insomnia or frequent waking.31 In the 1990s, an experiment was performed with a short-wave radio broadcast transmitter in Schwarzenburg, Switzerland. This study found that microwaves may result in more difficulty falling asleep as well as maintaining sleep. Sleep quality improved when the transmitter was shut down. This was not a double-blind study, however, and so does not rule out the possibility of placebo-like effect.32 Another study by Citizens Initiative Kempten West (Germany) found that mobile phone masts resulted in a large decrease in serotonin in a majority of the participants. In any case, it is interesting to note that the use of prescription sleep aids has nearly tripled in young adults between 1998 and 2006.33 In 1998 and 1999, were introduced cordless phones of the 2.4 GHz spectrum as well as Wi-Fi (see Appendix 1C).

In K. Crofton's book, Radiation Rescue, the first testimony is from someone who heeded the wireless wake-up call, following which her insomnia of 3 years disappeared, and she was sleeping well for a couple of weeks.

Calcium Efflux

Wireless radiation has been shown to remove calcium ions from membrane surfaces.34 An experiment (Blackman et al) found calcium ion efflux from chick-brain tissue at certain field intensities.35 This calcium efflux phenomenon may have impacts in multiple systems including the neurological and cardiovascular system. For example, contractions in the heart are influenced by calcium. Neurotransmitters in the brain are also influenced by calcium.36 Some relevant research on cardiac and neurological effects will be discussed in the following sections.

We can further gather some insight into the importance of calcium, and the disruption that calcium efflux might have, by studying the delicate balance between Magnesium and Calcium in the body. Magnesium helps dissolve calcium and maintain calcium levels in the blood, the excess of which could effect calcification and disrupt cell function. Additionally, magnesium allows just enough calcium for electrical transmission along the nerves. Magnesium and calcium also work in opposite roles in the relaxation vs. contraction of muscles. Magnesium plays an important role as well as co-factor in chemical reactions, in the synthesis of proteins, and the the production of energy. Finally, Magnesium is also important in the detoxification process. According to The Magnesium Miracle, magnesium deficiency and calcium excess is potentially related to multiple conditions, including neurological, heart, infertility, osteoporosis, kidney stones, bowel disease, chronic fatigue syndrome, asthma, cramping, depression, and more. 37 Perhaps some of the symptoms of microwave sickness are related to the calcium efflux effect.

Cardiac Effects like Arrhythmia

Scientific Research

As mentioned previously, Calcium and Magnesium play an important role in the contraction and relaxation of the heart. Neuroscientist Allan Frey, who came up with a theory for microwave hearing, found that microwaves could trigger heart arrhythmia in laboratory animals or even stop hearts with the right modulations.38 A study on frogs' hearts found a greater release of calcium ions within two intensity regions in response to electromagnetic waves.39 Similarly, the calcium concentration in guinea pigs' heart muscle cells is also affected by low levels of microwave radiation.40 Problems with heart rate have furthermore been observed in exposed chick embryos.41 Chick embryos exposed to GSM mobile phone radiation during development actually had higher mortality rates.42 With regards to humans, a study exposing ten healthy individuals to a digital cell phone for 35 minute periods in double-blind experiments found an average rise in systolic and diastolic blood pressure of 5-10 mm Hg as well as a slowing of heart rate.43 Magda Havas has also performed a double-blind study which shows some volunteers' heart rate responding to DECT cordless phone stations without knowing whether the DECT station was plugged into a live or dead outlet.44

Corresponding Anecdotal and Epidemiological Evidence

People living near radio towers or mobile phone masts appear to have increased cardiac symptoms such as arrhythmia. In Switzerland, when examining adults before and after turning on a cell tower for arrhythmia, it was found that there was a significant increase in arrhythmia.45 The example of Ouruhia, New Zealand, previously given, also included cardiac symptoms near the radio tower. Since the heart involves electrical signals, this may not be a complete surprise.

Cardiac problems have also been observed in the young. The usage of wireless technologies by pregnant women has been correlated to higher fetal and neonatal heart rate and decreased cardiac output, according to one study.46 Since electrical disturbances in the heart may be responsible for some cases of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), we should also be concerned about a potential link between microwaves and SIDS.47 The frightening thing is that people worried about SIDS often employ wireless baby monitors to check on their babies, not realizing that the monitor itself may cause electrical disturbances. There are anecdotes in which wireless DECT baby monitors gave babies more problems than the older analog wireless baby monitors.48

Neurological Effects

Scientific Research

Other examples of leakage across barriers include the increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to various substances like albumin, which could damage neurons. Neuronal damage was found in rat brains 50 days after a 2 hour exposure to a level as low as 2mW per kg.49 This increased permeability of the BBB in rats was also found after 7 and 14 days after the exposure.50 Other studies have suggested that other substances besides albumin can also penetrate this barrier when exposed to microwaves.51 This BBB permeability may partly explain why some people have headaches around wireless technology.52

Research has also found calcium efflux in brain tissue in response to microwaves. Blackman discovered two power density windows in which calcium would be removed from brain tissue.53 As a possible mechanism, Andrew Goldsworthy suggests that if the voltage is just right, it will selectively remove the more strongly charged ions, such as divalent ions like calcium.

Since calcium plays an important role at the inter-neuron synapse in the release of neurotransmitters, this might further explain effects related to neurotransmitters. Changes in neurotransmitter functions have been found after low intensity exposures.54 Dopamine, norepinephrine, acetycholine levels, and 5-HT, a precursor to serotonin, and melatonin, for example, may be affected.55 Low levels of norepinephrine may help explain feelings of stress. Low levels of serotonin may help explain symptoms of depression around mobile phone masts. Chronic exposure to GSM cell phone radiation was found to reduce synaptic activity in the hippocampus neurons, which may also help to explain memory loss in wireless phone use.56 Impaired memory was also found in rats as a result of wireless exposure and is another symptom of microwave sickness.57

Neuron death is another concern. BBC News reports that Swedish researchers studied rats whose brains are in the same development stage of a teenager. 50 days after a 2-hour exposure to radiation equivalent to mobile phones, they found an abundance of dead brain cells.58 Exposed brain neurons may die more rapidly because of a lower capacity for DNA repair in brain cells. Neuron death could contribute to Alzheimer’s disease or Parkinson’s disease. Changes in protein folding resulting from microwaves could cause formations of long strands of proteins called fibrils which trigger heat shock proteins. Protein fibrils are likewise found in diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s.59

ADHD and Emotional Disorders

Mobile phone usage by pregnant mothers was recently correlated to the risk of having children with greater hyperactivity and emotional problems, even to the surprise of some of the researchers who expected to find otherwise.60 This phenomenon might explain the rise of modern day disorders such as ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). In Switzerland, when examining school children before and after turning on a cell tower for concentration problems, academic performance, and ADD, it was found that there was a significant increase in problems.61 A study in Latvia of children near an early warning radar station in the early 1990s, found decreased attention, memory, and learning ability in the children living closes to the radar.62 The Skrunda radar station operated from 1971 to 1998. Scientists were invited to conduct studies due to reports of ill health. Among the many effects they found included impaired memory and attention in school children.63

Immune System Dysfunctions and Chronic Diseases

Unlike other particles and pathogens, microwaves can penetrate directly into the body. This is a problem for the immune system which relies a lot on skin as a barrier against pathogens. Some of the possible consequences found from microwave radiation include:

Johansson observed that electrohypersensitive individuals had higher densities of dendritic cells in their skin, which are reactors to ionizing radiation like X-rays and UV. Hence, electrohypersensitivity is postulated as being the result of irradiation due to effects similar to those documented of ionizing radiation like UV light. The increased numbers of mast cells could release histamines resulting in itch and pain. Mast cells are found to occur in many places, including the brain and heart. Chronic exposure to EMF was postulated to lead to chronic allergic responses and inflammatory responses.

Chronic Fatigue Immune Deficiency Syndrome (CFIDS or CFS)

The immune system dysfunctions caused by wireless technologies, may also be related to Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS or CFIDS) as noted by Olle Johansson. Whereas wireless technologies may initially stimulate the immune system, they can eventually exhaust it. The depressed immune system may then make one more susceptible to ordinary bacterias/viruses. CFS was a symptom mentioned found in Ouruhia, New Zealand, correlated to a radio tower. One individual claims to have recovered from Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, by escaping from wireless technologies.66

Increased Asthma, Allergies and Rashes

Dr. Peter Finch discovered mobile phone frequencies increased the production of histamines, which are involved in allergic reactions and bronchial spasms. Consequently, Dr. Finch predicted an increase in allergies and asthma.70 It is therefore interesting that asthma, along with headaches and impaired concentration, was one of the strongest connections found in users of wireless telephones, according to a study in Örebro University, Sweden.71 Asthma was also one of the symptoms found near the AM/FM radio towers in Ouruhia, New Zealand.

Even power frequencies may increase risk for asthma. Asthma of offspring is also being linked to the power line magnetic field exposure of mothers during pregnancy (De-Kun Li et al, 2011). Filters for dirty electricity, high frequency radiation on wires, have also reportedly reduced a number of symptoms, including headache, skin irritation, and asthma.72

Possible Mechanisms for Asthma:

Possible Mechanisms for Allergies, Rashes, Gut permeability:

One Japanese study found that microwave radiation can increase allergic responses to dust and pollen in adults with eczema, in comparison to the control group.69 This may also be related to mast cells. Mast cells may cause other problems depending upon where they occur-- asthma related to bronchial tubes, hay fever related to the nose, conjunctivitis related to the eye, and eczema/hives related to the skin (Adams, pp8-9). The other hypothesis for the mechanism behind allergies is that it is the result of cell membrane weakening due to the calcium efflux effect. Andrew Goldsworthy explains that when calcium ions are replaced with monovalent ions, it weakens the cell membrane, increasing the likelihood of pores.67 This membrane weakening can affect “tight junction barriers,” such as nasal mucosa, lungs, and gut linings. Leakage through pores may allow increased amounts of toxins to enter in and damage the cell, resulting in increased allergies, multiple chemical sensitivities, asthma, skin rashes, bowel cancer, and gut permeability. Gut permeability might in turn contribute to many health conditions such as type-1 diabetes, Crohns disease, celiac disease, multiple sclerosis, and irritable bowel syndrome. 68

The Autism Hypothesis and Other Developmental Problems

Autism arose in the 1980s and 1990s around the time that wireless technologies started becoming popular.73 Autism has been thought to be a “geek syndrome”, rising amongst places like Silicon Valley, where a greater proportion of people are likely to be technology lovers, and hence, wireless users.74 According to one source, it nearly tripled between 1987 and 1998 in California. Brick, NJ, also had autism, at the rate of 8 children per 1000 between ages 3 and 5. Investigators could not find a chemical contaminant to explain it, but 10 miles away was a Doppler weather radar transmitting at an extremely high power of 750,000 watts since late 1994. 75

Are there any studies which suggest a possible correlation between wireless technologies and autism?76 One pilot study by Dietrich Klinghardt checked the body voltage and microwave power density that a person would have in the sleeping location of the pregnant mother. These numbers were compared for the sleeping location of women who later gave birth to healthy children versus the sleeping location of those who gave birth to autistic children. The study found significantly higher body voltages and microwave power density for the mothers who gave birth to the autistic child.77

Suggestions for the cause of autism range from mercury toxicity from vaccines to problems with neurotransmitters to genetic damage to GMO's and food allergy problems, all of which can be exacerbated by wireless technologies. Klinghardt believes that electro-smog (wireless radiation) is one of three interconnected causes of autism. This electrosmog may contribute to the growth of molds and other bio-toxins, which may also be working in autism. 78 Another study in 2007 suggested that wireless technologies could make it more difficult for autistic children to excrete heavy metals, such as mercury.79 With regards to synergy, it is possible that EMF worsens the effects of a toxin (e.g., by opening the blood-brain barrier, letting more of the toxin in) or stands in the way of the body's natural protective mechanism against the toxin (e.g., by reducing glutathione levels). Andrew Goldsworthy also hypothesizes that microwaves can interrupt the pruning process in neuron connections, and thereby contribute to autism.80.

The latest Bioinitiative Report (2012) notes additional clues that might link microwaves to an increased risk for autism. For example, some of these factorsinclude increased oxidative stress, reduced glutathione levels, interference with calcium signaling, cell membrane peroxidation, impacts to gap junctions like the blood-brain barrier, genotoxicity, mitochondrial dysfunction, melatonin dysregulation, disturbed immune function, and brain cell damage. The report concludes that even if these links cannot be proven, that EMF can increase the risk by worsening challenging biological problems.

An increase of Down’s syndrome was also found amongst the children of radar operators, and amongst residents near satellite uplinks in the microwave bands in Vernon, NJ (radar and satellite also fall within the microwave band).81 Note that radar has also been linked to “internal bleeding, leukemia, cataracts, headaches, brain tumors, heart conditions, and liver involvement with jaundice” at certain power densities.82

Effects on Mercury

Mercury also seems to be tied into Electromagnetic radiation. The Swedish book of testimonies of electromagnetic hypersensitivity, Black on White, includes many individuals who reported their sensitivity to microwaves following a dental appointment that impacted mercury levels.83 Another anecdote has been provided of an otherwise normal patient who developed trigeminal neuralgia. It was suspected to be a result of this man’s root canal with 2 metals and amalgam fillings in combination with the cell tower. The individual had the filling for 15-20 years before the neuralgia, but he did not become sick until after the cell tower came up. It is suggested that the amalgam fillings may act as an antenna84 Note that mercury also increases excretion of magnesium and calcium from kidneys. Magnesium levels are important as they can help in the excretion of certain heavy metals.85 There is also a possibility that radiation increases mercury release, which can be dangerous since mercury is a toxic chemical.

Effects on Plants

Even plants seem to be affected by microwaves, including tomato plants, pine trees, aquatic plants, poplars, willows, and more. In Latvia, pines exposed to radar, experienced a decline in growth in comparison to surrounding trees, coinciding with the start of the emissions. Exposed pine trees were also found in other studies to have increased resin production (a possible stress response) and low seed germination. Trees near phone masts have similarly experienced deterioration.86

Dr. Wolfgang Volkrodt, a retired Siemens physicist and engineer, studied deforestation in the German and Swiss Alps. He noticed areas of damage that occurred even where there was no acid rain. He hypothesized the cause was the massive communication between NATO countries and the soviet block. The theory was that the pine needles absorbed electrical current, and channeled this into the soil, which was destroyed. Indeed, U.S. satellites found deforestation in areas with massive communication. Some students built a Faraday cage around whole areas of forest, and those were the areas where the forests started to regenerate87.

Effects on Animals

Effects can be seen not only in humans, but also in animals-- including horses, cows, pigs, birds, bird eggs, rats, monkeys, amphibians, bees, worms, drosophila (fruit flies), yeast, algae, and bacteria, some of which were mentioned earlier due to laboratory studies on animals.88 Our mobile phone standard of 1.6 W/kg was itself based on a behavioral disturbance in monkeys in response to microwaves.

One possible explanation for some of these effects is related to magnetite, which is used in many animals as a navigational tool. Bees, butterflies, birds, fish, dolphins, and magnetobacteria have magnetite. In 1992, it was even discovered that the blood brain barrier and meninges covering the human brain (Joseph Kirschvink at California Institute of Technology) also has magnetite. The sinus region was also found to have magnetic material.89 The pineal gland, which produces melatonin, has also been found to be contain calcite microcrystals with piezoelectric properties, which might operate with a similar mechanism as the magnetite crystals in the brain.90

Mammals

It is interesting to consider a few case studies regarding livestock exposed to mobile phone masts or radio towers, which involve pigs, cows, and horses.

In Casaveieja, Spain, farmers blamed mobile phone base stations for pigs' miscarriages. Upon the disassembly of the antennae, the problems stopped.91

In Bavaria, Germany, a farmer started noticing problems beginning in 1992, and could not find a reason other than the radio frequency broadcasts. The cows' problems included conjunctivitis, itching, reproductive problems, decreased milk production, dancing or weaving in stalls, and pointing heads away from the transmission tower. When one cow was moved to a neighbor's farm 20 kilometers away, this strange behavior disappeared in 5 days. Not to mention also, this farmer's family also experienced many health issues, including headaches, non-malignant growth, aching joints, pains in bladder, head, and heart. Other animals, including birds, cats, and chickens and dogs, upon entering the farm, appeared to be strangely and negatively affected.92

In New Zealand, well-known horse trainer Penny Hargreaves had a small farm near a radio tower. She had some cows which became nervous and disoriented. All 90 of her horses were also affected and became nervous and jumpy. Symptoms included loss of balance, volatile behavior, more infections than ever before, and walking as if their feet hurt. Penny and her daughter also suffered health problems including abdominal pain, joint pains, heart palpitations, ringing in the ears, mental confusion, and asthma, until they moved away.93

Birds

Previously, negative effects were mentioned regarding exposed chick embryos. In scientific research, cell cultures of avian brain tissue subjected to cell phone frequency also had abnormal neuronal firing in over half of the cell samples, or else an abnormal shut down. In practice, around cell towers, we do see abandonment of nest sites, fewer eggs, chick deformities, a decrease of population,94 as well as lower productivity in nests, plumage deterioration, and partial albinism.95 The decrease in population may be in part due to cell tower collisions, but also in part due to interference with magnetic navigation.96

Bees, Insects, & Worms

A serious problem has afflicted bee colonies worldwide, called colony collapse disorder. Beekeepers have been surprised to find many beehives unusually abandoned. 25 to 50% of American bee keepers reported loss, e.g., 50% to 90% of their bees disappeared within a 6 month period .97 While herbicides, pesticides, and GMO's may be suspected for problems with bee colonies, some also postulate that the increase of mobile phone masts (e.g., cell towers) could be related to colony collapse disorder by interfering with their navigational skills.98

A limited study at Landau University put DECT wireless stations at the bottom of bee hives. The ones with greater exposure to the DECT stations had greater incidence of colony breakdown. Fewer bees returned to the hive, and the exposed hives had lower honeycomb weights.99 A study in 2009 by Pattazhy from Kerala also found that mobile phone towers could damage the navigational skills of worker bees.100

Another hypothesized mechanism is through the interference of the Nitrogen Monoxide (NO) system, which would disrupt not only learning capability and olfactory orientation but also the immune system. The mechanism by which this happens might be related to the sensitivity of NADH oxidase enzyme to magnetic and electromagnetic fields. As a result, not only would this interfere with bees' orientation, but also with their susceptibility to virus, fungi, and other microorganisms.101

Non-thermal microwave fields like that of cell phones were also found to induce heat-shock responses in the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans102 as well as fruit flies.103

1 PMID 17482179 and PMID 17655195

2 http://www.microwavenews.com/, Aug 16 entry

3 Hjollund et. al., 1997 (http://www.c-a-r-e.org/powerpoints/07-Frankel,MD%20-Medical.ppt)

4 PMID 17628553

5 PMID 16846978

6 Magras and Xenos, 1997 http://www.c-a-r-e.org/powerpoints/07-Frankel,MD%20-Medical.ppt

7http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19241083

8 Harrill, Rob, “Wake-up Call” http://www.washington.edu/alumni/columns/march05/wakeupcall01.html http://www.bioinitiative.org/ section 6

9 http://www.microwavenews.com , 9/3 entry

10 PMID 16511873, PMID 16107253, and http://www.bioinitiative.org/, section 5

11http://download.journals.elsevierhealth.com/pdfs/journals/0928-4680/PIIS0928468009000066.pdfElectromagnetic fields and DNA damage”

12 http://download.journals.elsevierhealth.com/pdfs/journals/0928-4680/PIIS0928468009000066.pdf and http://electromagnetichealth.org/electromagnetic-health-blog/columbia-university-law-school-wireless-hazards-panel/

13 http://www.emrpolicy.org/science/forum/macarthur_cell_phones_brain.pdf , http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0027510705004045, http://www.next-up.org/pdf/Bees_Birds_Mankind_Destroying_Nature_by_Electrosmog_Ulrich_Warnke.pdf (36/47)

14 See IV. of http://www.bioinitiative.org/, section 7, http://johndmacarthur.com/reports/cellphones.html, and http://www.emrnetwork.org/position/macarthur_cell_phones_brain.pdf , see also http://www.icems.eu/docs/brazil/Blank_stress_proteins.ppt (slide 16 of 21)

15 http://www.der-mast-muss-weg.de/pdf/studien/04Goldsworthy_Thesaloniki.pdf

16 See Martin Blank in BioInitiative Report on stress response also shared in powerline and microwave radiation

17 brain-surgery.net.au/larrykinglive/, http://www.bioinitiative.org/, section 10

18 Bruce Hocking et al. "Cancer incidence and mortality and proximity to TV towers." The Medical Journal of Australia, 1996. (https://www.mja.com.au/public/issues/dec2/hocking/hocking.html ) , "Cancer Incidence near Radio and Television Transmitters in Great Britain". (http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/153/2/202 ), Paola Michelozzi et al. "Adult and Childhood Leukemia near a High-Power Radio Station in Rome,Italy", American Journal of Epidemiology. Vol. 155, No. 12., 2002. (http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/155/12/1096 ), http://www.mindfully.org/Technology/Sutro-Tower-EMF-Cancer29may00.htm, http://www.c-a-r-e.org/powerpoints/07-Frankel,MD%20-Medical.ppt , http://www.c-a-r-e.org/health.htm

19 http://www.powerwatch.org.uk/news/20050207_israel.pdf (Wolf et al, 2004, “Increased Incidence of Cancer Near a Cell-Phone Transmitter Station”), http://www.powerwatch.org.uk/news/20041118_naila.pdf (Eger, Horst et al, 2004 “The Influence of Being Physically Near to a Cell Phone Transmission Mast on the Incidence of Cancer”), Oberfield et al, 2008. http://www.powerwatch.org.uk/news/20080325_oberfeld_study.pdf, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/health/healthnews/7567060/Mobile-mast-blamed-for-cancer-cluster.html, http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article1687491.ece "Cancer clusters at phone masts", http://www.next-up.org/pdf/Malaghoy_43_cancer_cases_among_350_residents_living_near_a_mobile_telephone_relay_antenna_24_11_2009.pdf (Spain), http://thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2008/4/29/nation/21087552&sec=nation (Malaysia), http://www.nownews.com/2009/11/28/11469-2539167.htm (11/28/2009), udn.com/NEWS/DOMESTIC/DOM3/5122658.shtml (9/8/2009), http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/taiwan/archives/2007/06/22/2003366306 (6/22/2007), http://www.libertytimes.com.tw/2009/new/jul/13/today-life6.htm (7/13/2009), http://electromagnetichealth.org/electromagnetic-health-blog/long-island-village-receives-200000-a-year-for-placing-antennas-near-schools/ (1/10/2010)

20 http://www.bbc.co.uk/insideout/westmidlands/series6/phone_masts.shtml

21 http://www.ourstolenfuture.org/commentary/News/2002/2002-1023-WashPost-CAbreastcancer.htm , http://www.marinproject.org/signs.html, http://electromagnetichealth.org/watch-videos/ (see Public Exposure: DNA, Democracy, and the Wireless Revolution which mentions Marin County, California)

22 http://www.studiosra.it/news/santini.pdf

23 http://next-up.org/pdf/CallOfBrussels.pdf

24 http://health.usnews.com/articles/health/healthday/2009/05/27/us-cancer-death-rates-continue-to-fall.html

25 http://www.microwavenews.com/kucinich.html

26 http://www.mdconsult.com/das/article/body/146690640-2/jorg=journal&source=&sp=19939264&sid=0/N/606505/1.html?issn=14702045 “Accuracy of US cancer surveillance under threat”

27No Place to Hide, Volume 2, Number 3 March 2000, p. 19 based on Neuroscience Letters, November 1999 pp 207-210

28http://piers.mit.edu/piersonline/download.php?file=MDYwOTA3MTcyMTQyfFZvbDNObzdQYWdlMTE0OHRvMTE1MC5wZGY=, http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/health-and-wellbeing/health-news/mobile-phone-radiation-wrecks-your-sleep-771262.html

29 PMID 17548154, PMID 12464096

30 http://www.emrpolicy.org/news/headlines/2009_auva-report_english.pdf

31 http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/health-and-wellbeing/health-news/the-school-that-took-on-mobile-phone-companies-445731.html mentions sleeping problems and fatigue near a mobile phone mast

32 http://www.springerlink.com/content/h1r8p16643285375/fulltext.pdf?page=1, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16342198

33 http://www.reuters.com/article/healthNews/idUSTRE50E85Y20090116

34 (Bawin et al., 1975)

35 http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/112127444/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0

36 http://www.salzburg.gv.at/Proceedings_%2812%29_Blackman.pdf

37 Dean, Carolyn. The Magnesium Miracle, 2007, up to page 22

38http://www.emrpolicy.org/files/GQ.pdf

39 http://www.salzburg.gv.at/Proceedings_%2812%29_Blackman.pdf, p76, Schwarz et al, 1990

40Cell Phones and The Dark Deception, p.109

41 PMID 3801059

42 PMID 14658287

43 No Place to Hide, Volume 2, Number 1, February 1999, based on Lancet, S. Braune et al, “Resting blood pressure increase during exposure to a radio-frequency electromagnetic field,” Vol. 351, 1998, pp 1857-58).

44http://electromagnetichealth.org/electromagnetic-health-blog/electrosensitivity-series-arrythmia-connection-with-electrosmog/

45 http://electromagnetichealth.org/audio-archives-and-more/#patients Thomas Rau, Paracelsus clinic, Switzerland

46 PMID 18246230

47 http://sids-network.org/experts/mayoclinic980611.htm

48 http://www.buergerwelle.de/pdf/martin_weatherall/brain_development/dect_cordless_phone_danger.pdf, http://www.emfacts.com/papers/dect.pdf, http://www.powerwatch.org.uk/news/20060222_baby_monitors.asp

49 PMID 12782486 ; see also http://download.journals.elsevierhealth.com/pdfs/journals/0928-4680/PIIS0928468009000133.pdf

50 http://www.ehponline.org/members/2003/6039/6039.html,http://www.ursi.org/RSBissues/RSBdecember2005zww.PDF, pp33-38, http://www.citizensforsafetechnology.org/uploads/Article_-_Increased_permeability_in_BB_Barrier.pdf

51 Frey et al, 1975, Oscar et al, 1977 (PMID 861720) Albert et al, 1981 (PMID 7317776), Chang et al, 1982, Salford et al, 1994, (PMID 8012056)

52 http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1533043 "Headaches from cellular telephones: are they real and what are the implications?"

53 http://www.der-mast-muss-weg.de/pdf/studien/04Goldsworthy_Thesaloniki.pdf`

54 http://www.emrpolicy.org/science/forum/laibrussels.pdf , pp 9, 12

55 http://www.radiationresearch.org/pdfs/kempten_west.pdf ; http://www.gulf-daily-news.com/NewsDetails.aspx?storyid=276049 on the Kempten, Germany study in 2007 which shows serotonin and melatonin are affected; http://www.laleva.org/eng/2007/02/do_you_have_microwave_sickness.html

56 PMID 16443327

57 Nittby et al. 2008a

58 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/low/health/2728149.stm (2/5/03)

59 http://www.microwavenews.com/news/backissues/m-j03issue.pdf

60 http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/health-and-wellbeing/health-news/warning-using-a-mobile-phone-while-pregnant-can-seriously-damage-your-baby-830352.html

61 http://electromagnetichealth.org/audio-archives-and-more/#patients Thomas Rau, Paracelsus clinic, Switzerland

62No Place to Hide, Volume 3, Number 2, November 2001, Anton Kolodynski, The Science of the Total Environment, Jan 1996

63No Place to Hide, Volume 2, Number 3,March 2000, p.20

64 http://www.bioinitiative.org, section 8 (see also http://download.journals.elsevierhealth.com/pdfs/journals/0928-4680/PIIS0928468009000352.pdf)

65 http://www.ehponline.org/members/2005/7561/7561.html (Markova study)

66 http://www.mast-victims.org/index.php?content=news&action=view&type=newsitem&id=2885

67 http://www.der-mast-muss-weg.de/pdf/studien/04Goldsworthy_Thesaloniki.pdf from the 1st HELLENIC CONGRESS - THE EFFECTS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION Thessalonica, 24-25 May 2008

68 http://www.der-mast-muss-weg.de/pdf/studien/04Goldsworthy_Thesaloniki.pdf from the 1st HELLENIC CONGRESS - THE EFFECTS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION Thessalonica, 24-25 May 2008

69http://content.karger.com/ProdukteDB/produkte.asp?Aktion=ShowFulltext&ArtikelNr=000067592&Ausgabe=228838&ProduktNr=224161, http://bastyrcenter.org/content/view/313/

http://www.nzine.co.nz/features/emr_asthma_arthritis_allergies.html#3

71 http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/11/091111121251.htm "The connection was strongest regarding headaches, asthmatic complaints, and impaired concentration."

72http://www.emrpolicy.org/files/prevention_jan_2010.pdf Magda Havas

73 B. Blake Levitt, Electromagnetic Fields

74 http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/9.12/aspergers_pr.html

75No Place to Hide, Volume 3, Number 2, p.19

76 See also hypothesis in PMID 14962625

77 http://electromagnetichealth.org/media-stories/#Autism

78 http://electromagnetichealth.org/audio-archives-and-more/ , see also http://www.klinghardtacademy.com/Protocols/Dr-Klinghardt-on-Autism.html

79 http://www.buergerwelle.de/pdf/emr_autism_acnem_final_1.pdf

80 http://www.der-mast-muss-weg.de/pdf/studien/04Goldsworthy_Thesaloniki.pdf

81 B. Blake Levitt, 165.

82 B. Blake Levitt, 21

83 http://www.feb.se/feb/blackonwhite-complete-book.pdf

84 http://electromagnetichealth.org/audio-archives-and-more/, Thomas M. Rau, Paracelsus Clinic, Switzerland

85 Dean, Carolyn. Pp 185-186.

86http://download.journals.elsevierhealth.com/pdfs/journals/0928-4680/PIIS0928468009000030.pdf Balmori, Alfonso. “Electromagnetic pollution from phone masts. Effects on wildlife”

87 B. Blake Levitt, Electromagnetic Fields, 88-90; http://www.electromagnetichealth.org, interview with B.Blake Levitt

88 http://www.buergerwelle.de/pdf/micro_waves_effects_on_wildlife_animals.pdf

89 B. Blake Levitt, http://www.wave-guide.org/library/clearcall.html and http://www.electromagnetichealth.org, interview with Levitt, http://www.gps.caltech.edu/users/jkirschvink/pdfs/PNASbrainMagnetite.pdf , http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6823284, http://www.gps.caltech.edu/users/jkirschvink/pdfs/COINS.pdf

90 http://www.ursi.org/Proceedings/ProcGA02/papers/p2236.pdf “New Crystal in the Pineal Gland: Characterization and Potential Role in Electromechano-Transduction” Baconnier Simon(1), Lang Sidney B. (2), De Seze Rene(3)

91http://download.journals.elsevierhealth.com/pdfs/journals/0928-4680/PIIS0928468009000030.pdf Balmori, Alfonso. “Electromagnetic pollution from phone masts. Effects on wildlife”

92No Place to Hide, Volume 2 Number 4, September 2000, p.17, Josef Altenweger

93No Place to Hide, Volume 2, Number 3 March 2000, p. 12

94 http://www.electromagnetichealth.org, interview with Levitt

95http://download.journals.elsevierhealth.com/pdfs/journals/0928-4680/PIIS0928468009000030.pdf Balmori, Alfonso. “Electromagnetic pollution from phone masts. Effects on wildlife”

96 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17613041, http://www.i-sis.org.uk/MPVB.php ; For more animal/plant effects, see also http://www.es-uk.info/news/20080318_main_newsletter.pdf

97 http://www.next-up.org/pdf/Bees_Birds_Mankind_Destroying_Nature_by_Electrosmog_Ulrich_Warnke.pdf , (New Scientist, 2007)

98 http://www.examiner.com/x-5776-NY-Shelter-Pets-Examiner~y2009m9d2-Cell-Phone-Towers-Pose-a-Threat-to-Honeybees-A-New-Study-Shows

99 http://agbi.uni-landau.de/material_download/IAAS_2006.pdf, http://www.buergerwelle.de/pdf/the_big_bee_death.pdf, http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/nature/are-mobile-phones-wiping-out-our-bees-444768.html, http://www.i-sis.org.uk/MobilePhonesVanishingBees.php, http://www.mastsanity.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=127&Itemid=1,

100 http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/4986486.cms

101 http://www.bemri.org/archive/hese-uk/en/papers/warnke_bbm.pdf, p.26 (30/49), p.34 (38/49)

102 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10839528, http://www.cost281.org/download.php?fid=234

103http://download.journals.elsevierhealth.com/pdfs/journals/0928-4680/PIIS0928468009000030.pdf Balmori, Alfonso. Electromagnetic pollution from phone masts. Effects on wildlife

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